Table 7

Difference-in-Difference Estimates for the Effect of Mobile Money on Educational Inputs

Dependent Variables:
VariablesSchool Expenditure (ln)School Enrolment (Indicator)School Absenteeism (Indicator)Homework (Hours/Day)
Mobile money









Rainfall shock









Interaction (MM × RS)









Overall effect









Mean outcome2.6690.8750.2770.300
Individual fixed effectsYesYesYesYes
Year fixed effectsYesYesYesYes
  • Notes: The entries of the table report the DiD coefficients of mobile money, rainfall shock, and their interaction term on a number of educational inputs. The outcome variable in Column 1 is log real per capita school expenditure. The outcome variable in Column 2 is an indicator for (current) school enrollment that takes a value of one if the child is currently enrolled at school, and zero otherwise. The outcome variable in Column 3 is an indicator variable that takes a value of one if the child has missed school in the two weeks prior to the survey, and zero otherwise. The outcome variable in Column 4 is the number of hours that a child spends per day on homework and studying during the week prior to the survey. See notes in Table 3 (Column 2) for the specification and the set of controls used in the estimations. In addition to household-level controls, age and gender of individuals are used as additional individual controls in all regressions. The number of observations varies across outcomes, as the information on absenteeism and homework is not available in all household questionnaires. Robust standard errors, clustered at the enumeration area, are reported in parentheses. Significance: p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.