Table 7

Military Fatalities and Female Wartime Employment

Panel A: Death RatePanel B: FLFP
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Wartime employment−0.00
[0.01]
−0.00
[0.01]
Wartime employment × post−0.00
[0.01]
−0.01
[0.03]
−0.00
[0.01]
−0.02
[0.04]
Death rate × post0.35***
[0.07]
0.35***
[0.07]
0.35***
[0.07]
0.36***
[0.07]
Wartime employment × death rate × post0.00
[0.00]
0.00
[0.00]
Reference date07–191707–191807–191707–191707–191807–1918
ControlsYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations8787609609609609
Départements878787878787
Adj./Within R20.7450.7460.5820.5820.5810.582
  • Notes: Panel A reports OLS coefficients from regressing military death rates on changes in female employment in percent between July 1914 and July 1917 in Column 1 and between July 1914 and July 1918 in Column 2. Panel B reports OLS coefficients from estimating Specification 1. All regressions include controls for the share of the rural population in percent and the share of the population born in the département in percent. In Panel B, regressions include département and year fixed effects. FLFP denotes female labor force participation in percent. In Panel A, we report the adjusted R2, and robust standard errors are in brackets. In Panel B, we report the within R2, and standard errors are in brackets and are clustered at the département level. Significance:

  • *** p < 0.01.