Table 6

Treatment Effects of School Feeding on Schooling Estimated through ANCOVA, Full Sample, and Heterogeneity by Child Gender, Household Poverty, and Geographical Areas

EnrollmentAttendanceGrade
Panel A: All Children
School feeding0.0270.0440.145
[–0.015 – 0.069][–0.044 – 0.132][–0.009 – 0.298]
Unadjusted p-value0.2070.3240.065*
R-W p-value0.3720.3720.168
Observations2,3712,1092,254
R-squared0.0300.0380.671
Mean treatment endline0.9324.6854.506
Mean control endline0.8844.6654.269
EnrollmentAttendanceGrade
GirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoys
Panel B: Gender
School feeding0.0420.0150.0410.0510.0310.238
[–0.0034 – 0.087][–0.060 – 0.089][–0.081 – 0.162][–0.065 – 0.166][–0.161 – 0.223][0.070 – 0.406]
Unadjusted p-value0.07*0.5630.5070.3840.7500.006***
R-W p-value0.1920.6140.7530.6140.7530.015**
Observations1,0971,274 9881,1211,056 1,198
R-squared0.0430.0260.0510.0350.6520.692
Mean treatment endline0.9510.9154.6624.7064.4874.524
Mean control endline0.8850.8824.6434.6844.3134.230
Below the Poverty LineNonpoorBelow the Poverty LineNonpoorBelow the Poverty LineNonpoor
Panel C: Household Poverty
School feeding0.0530.0200.0190.0560.0960.170**
[0.003 – 0.104][–0.028 – 0.0682][–0.176 – 0.214][–0.034 – 0.145][–0.145 – 0.337][0.0123 – 0.328]
Unadjusted p-value0.039**0.4010.8470.2210.4290.035**
R-W p-value0.097*0.4090.8410.3840.6460.093*
Observations 5511,820 4891,620 5241,730
R-squared0.0250.0400.0760.0460.6660.676
Mean treatment endline0.9520.9264.5894.7154.6794.452
Mean control endline0.8610.8914.6434.6713.9754.355
NorthSouthNorthSouthNorthSouth
Panel D: Place of Residence
School feeding0.076−0.0130.0720.0200.2230.0781
[0.016 – 0.135][–0.067 – 0.0405][–0.026 – 0.171][–0.122 – 0.162][–0.042 – 0.489][–0.102 – 0.258]
Unadjusted p-value0.014**0.6240.1460.7780.097*0.387
R-W p-value0.033**0.8640.1700.8640.1700.778
Observations 1,092 1,279 992 1,117 1,030 1,224
R-squared0.0510.0260.0050.0340.6390.695
Mean treatment endline0.9320.9324.8204.5454.3524.667
Mean control endline0.8270.9274.7804.5864.0684.406
  • Notes:

  • * p < 0.1,

  • ** p < 0.05,

  • *** p < 0.01.

  • Confidence intervals clustered at community levels in squared brackets. R-W p-values were adjusted for multiple testing using the Romano–Wolf (2005, 2016) step-down method with 2,000 iterations and standard errors clustered at community level. The table above presents intent-to-treat effects on each outcome for the full sample and stratified by child gender, household poverty, and place of residence. Models were estimated through OLS. For each outcome, the model controls for its baseline value, a dichotomous variable related to the randomized assignment to school feeding, and region dummies. Enrollment is a dichotomous variable indicating whether the child is enrolled to any level of education; attendance is an indicator counting the number of days the child attended by the child in the past school week. The indicator ranges from zero to five days. Current grade provides the educational grade (in years) the child is currently enrolled in. Household poverty is a dichotomous indicator having the value of one if the household had baseline per capita consumption levels falling below the national consumption poverty fine in 2013. Northern regions include Upper West, Upper East, and Northern region. Southern regions include Western, Central, Greater Accra, Volta, Eastern, Asanti, and Brong Ahafo.