Table 5

Treatment Effects Estimated through Difference-in-Differences: Full Sample and Heterogeneity by Child Gender, Household Poverty, and Geographical Areas

MathLiteracyComposite Learning Score
Panel A: All Children
School feeding0.114
[–0.061 – 0.289]
0.139
[–0.027 – 0.306]
0.149
[–0.056 – 0.353]
Unadjusted p-value0.1990.100*0.152
R-W p-value0.1970.166
Observations5,3695,3605,411
R-squared0.0310.0420.043
Mean treatment endline0.1120.1050.194
Mean control endline-0.0435-0.05620
GirlsBoysGirlsBoysGirlsBoys
Panel B: Gender
School feeding0.204
[0.012 – 0.397]
0.0373
[–0.174–0.248]
0.192
[0.008 – 0.377]
0.0983
[–0.091 – 0.288]
0.239
0.013 – 0.466
0.0738
[–0.160 – 0.307]
Unadjusted p-value0.038**0.7260.041**0.3060.039**0.532
R-W p-value0.063*0.7130.06250.466
Observations2,5402,8292,5342,8262,5582,853
R-squared0.0370.0320.0360.0520.0410.050
Mean treatment endline0.1580.07000.1200.09230.2370.156
Mean control endline−0.0878−0.00534−0.102−0.0170−0.05090.0440
Below the Poverty LineNonpoorBelow the Poverty LineNonpoorBelow the Poverty LineNonpoor
Panel C: Household Poverty
School feeding0.270
[0.021 – 0.519]
0.0677
[–0.118 – 0.254]
0.335
[0.140 – 0.529]
0.0798
[–0.112 – 0.272]
0.346
[0.099 – 0.593]
0.0894
[–0.136 – 0.315]
Unadjusted p-value0.034**0.4710.001***0.4110.007***0.432
R-W p-value0.036**0.6080.001***0.608
Observations1,2434,1251,2414,1181,2474,163
R-squared0.0620.0280.0650.0390.0600.041
Mean treatment endline0.1360.1040.07040.1160.1770.199
Mean control endline−0.186−5.20e-05−0.203−0.0115−0.1770.0539
NorthSouthNorthSouthNorthSouth
Panel D: Place of Residence
School feeding0.204
[–0.073 – 0.480]
0.0125
[–0.210 – 0.235]
0.204
[–0.035 – 0.442]
0.0547
[–0.159 – 0.269]
0.244
[–0.047 – 0.536]
0.0305
[–0.238 – 0.299]
Unadjusted p-value0.1440.9110.092*0.6100.098*0.821
R-W p-value0.1390.8960.1390.800
Observations2,5032,8662,5092,8512,5192,892
R-squared0.0330.0350.0460.0470.0300.059
Mean treatment endline0.1790.04180.1690.03820.2700.115
Mean control endline−0.0639−0.0273−0.0629−0.0509−0.01600.0127
  • Notes:

  • * p < 0.1,

  • ** p < 0.05,

  • *** p < 0.01.

  • Confidence intervals clustered at community level in squared brackets. R-W p-values were adjusted for multiple testing using the Romano–Wolf (2005, 2016) step-down method with 2,000 iterations and standard errors clustered at community level. The table above presents intent-to-treat effects on each outcome estimated through difference-in-differences for the full sample and stratified by child gender, household poverty, and place of residence. Models were estimated through OLS. Models include a dichotomous variable for treatment assignment, a dummy for endline survey, and the treatment effect relates to the interaction between these two variables. It also includes region dummies. Math and literacy scores are age-standardized. Composite indices were computed as averages of the standardized scores and then they were standardized to the control group within each round. Household poverty is a dichotomous indicator having the value of one if the household had baseline per capita consumption levels falling below the national consumption poverty line in 2013. Northern regions include Upper West, Upper East, and Northern region. Southern regions include Western, Central, Greater Accra, Volta, Eastern, Asanti, and Brong Ahafo.