Table 5

Regression (OLS) Estimates of Male Fraction of 5-year Birth Cohort (LHS) on Fertility Fines (RHS)

Five Years Before One Child Policy (1975–1979)Five Years Before 2000 Census (1996–2000)
Fertility Fine−0.0038
Controls for Regional CharacteristicsNoYesNoYes
  • * significant at 10%

  • ** significant at 5%.

  • *** significant at 1%.

  • Source: China 2000 Census.

  • Notes: The fine is measured in years of household income, taken from Scharping (2003). Each regression examines the partial correlation between a 5-year age group and the fertility fines in 2000 by prefecture. China’s 2000 census is broken into 345 prefectural boundaries, and this is the finest geographic breakdown available in the data. Controls for regional characteristics are the share of individuals with access to tap water, share with electric or gas fuel, share with concrete or brick households, and the average education of those 30–39 years old. The male share of births is proxied by the living share of those in each cohort. Standard errors are robust and clustered at the province level.