Whole sample | |||
---|---|---|---|

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.328 (0.017)*** | ||

t* = 1 | −0.546 (0.012)*** | ||

t* = 5 | −0.173 (0.053)*** | ||

Tenure | < 4 years | ≥ 4 years | |

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.134 (0.048)*** | −0.383 (0.016)*** | |

t* = 1 | −0.464 (0.037)*** | −0.568 (0.013)*** | |

t* = 5 | 0.029 (0.115) | −0.254 (0.055)*** | |

Age | < 40 | ≥ 40 | |

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.319 (0.028)*** | −0.394 (0.020)*** | |

t* = 1 | −0.532 (0.020)*** | −0.580 (0.013)*** | |

t* = 5 | −0.189 (0.086)** | −0.304 (0.053)*** | |

Sex | Female | Male | |

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.293 (0.025)*** | −0.398 (0.022)*** | |

t* = 1 | −0.471 (0.022)*** | −0.628 (0.014)*** | |

t* = 5 | −0.164 (0.082)** | −0.276 (0.069)*** | |

Industry | Manufacturing | Services | |

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.386 (0.025)*** | −0.326 (0.023)*** | |

t* = 1 | −0.655 (0.014)*** | −0.498 (0.017)*** | |

t* = 5 | −0.241 (0.079)*** | −0.241 (0.076)*** | |

Skill | Skilled | Unskilled | |

1 ≤ t* ≤ 5 | −0.363 (0.023)*** | −0.306 (0.025)*** | |

t* = 1 | −0.593 (0.016)*** | −0.490 (0.020)*** | |

t* = 5 | −0.243 (0.062)*** | −0.274 (0.068)*** |

Notes:

a. Number reported is the cost per year as a proportion of the income of the control group at the same point in time.

b. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses.

c. All estimates are from Sample 2 and are estimated using Equation 1 on propensity score-matched treatment and control groups.